Security & Code Blog

Security and code discussion, with dissections of recent vulnerabilities discovered as part of vendor bug bounty programmes. Don't forget to participate with comments and feedback!

Exfiltrating files with BusyBox


This is a super quick post on a simple method to exfiltrate data from systems running BusyBox, a shell commonly used on embedded devices. Such systems often lack common tools, presenting a challenge when you need to move data about. When I first looked into this topic I found solutions which were too specific or complex, so I hope this post is useful.

The BusyBox man page lists commonly available commands, which currently include *deep breath*:

The most popular subdomains on the internet


Fuzzing is fun. But fuzzing is even more fun when you have a solid wordlist to work with. When it comes to hunting down subdomains there are a few lists out there to plug into your fuzzer, but most are small, one-shot affairs. I set out to build a list of popular subdomains which was comprehensive and could be easily kept up-to-date.

For this project I needed to get hold of DNS records. A lot of DNS records. After trying various sources, I settled upon Rapid7's Project Sonar Forward DNS data set, which includes "... regular DNS lookup for all names gathered from the other scan types, such as HTTP data, SSL Certificate names, reverse DNS records, etc". Rapid7's data set uses a really nice mix of real-world sources and is regularly updated. Perfect.

The first challenge was how to handle 1.4 billion (68 GiB) raw DNS records in a reasonable amount of time; my first attempt at processing the data took well over a week to complete on a reasonably beefy server, hardly ideal for updating frequently.

How I got access to millions of [redacted] accounts


I'd like to start by saying that the company involved has my full respect for handling security in a mature manner and actively seeking researchers to take a deep look at their products. It's important to note that during testing I did not access personal data or files belonging to users other than my own.

Onto the chase.

It was a cool, dark night. The world was still, the bounties were calling. One in particular caught my eye. It had been running for nearly two weeks so I wasn't expecting to find many new bugs, but sometimes you get lucky. It was a time-limited affair, and with 24 hours left on the clock I decided to try my luck. At first I didn't find much - the odd information leak, header injection, an XSS, nothing that hadn't been reported half a dozen times. But then...

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